The habilitation teaching qualification ( facultas docendi or "faculty to teach") under a university procedure with a thesis and an exam is commonly regarded as belonging to this category in Germany , Austria , France , Liechtenstein , Switzerland , Poland , etc. The degree developed in Germany in the 19th century "when holding a doctorate seemed no longer sufficient to guarantee a proficient transfer of knowledge to the next generation."  The habilitation results in an award of a formal "Dr. habil." degree or the holder of the degree may add "habil." to his research doctorate such as "Dr. phil. habil." or "Dr. rer. nat. habil." In some European universities, especially in German -speaking countries, the degree is insufficient to have teaching duties without professor supervision (or to teach and supervise . students independently) without an additional instructor/teaching certificate/license, such as Privatdozent . In many countries of Central and Eastern Europe , the degree gives the venia legendi , Latin for "permission for lecturing," or the ius docendi , "right of teaching" a specific academic subject at universities for a lifetime. The French academic system used to have a higher doctorate, called "State doctorate" ( doctorat d'État ), but it was superseded by the habilitation ( Habilitation à diriger des recherches , "accreditation to supervise research", abbreviated HDR) in 1984.
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