If an expert says that a proposition is true, this provides a reason for tentatively accepting it, in the absence of stronger reasons to doubt it. But suppose that evidence of financial gain suggests that the expert is biased, for example by evidence showing that he will gain financially from his claim.
Nicholson, Adam McHenry . English, University of Illinois at Springfield. Adjunct instructor, English and Capital Scholars Honors Program, University of Illinois Springfield. Adjunct instructor of English, Lincoln Land Community College.
Thomson's article, by positing a moral justification for abortion even if one grants a fetal right to life, opened up a new avenue in the philosophical debate about the ethics of abortion. Critics of her view have formulated many objections to her argument, and defenders have responded in kind in a back and forth that continues in philosophy journals even now.
contains definitions and examples of more than sixty
rhetorical devices, (including rhetorical tropes and rhetorical
figures) all of which can still be useful today to improve the
effectiveness, clarity, and enjoyment of your writing. Note: This book
was written in 1980, with some changes since. The devices presented are
not in alphabetical order. To go directly to the discussion of a
device, click on the name below. If you know these already, go directly
to the Self Test . To learn
about my book, Writing
with Clarity and Style ,
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A glib speaker in the Brains Trust once entertained his audience (and reduced the late Charles Williams to helpless rage by asserting that in the Middle Ages it was a matter of faith to know how many archangels could dance on the point of a needle. I need not say, I hope, that it never was a "matter of faith"; it was simply a debating exercise, whose set subject was the nature of angelic substance: were angels material, and if so, did they occupy space? The answer usually adjudged correct is, I believe, that angels are pure intelligences; not material, but limited, so that they may have location in space but not extension. An analogy might be drawn from human thought, which is similarly non-material and similarly limited. Thus, if your thought is concentrated upon one thing--say, the point of a needle--it is located there in the sense that it is not elsewhere; but although it is "there," it occupies no space there, and there is nothing to prevent an infinite number of different people's thoughts being concentrated upon the same needle-point at the same time. The proper subject of the argument is thus seen to be the distinction between location and extension in space; the matter on which the argument is exercised happens to be the nature of angels (although, as we have seen, it might equally well have been something else; the practical lesson to be drawn from the argument is not to use words like "there" in a loose and unscientific way, without specifying whether you mean "located there" or "occupying space there."
Are there any other devices such as humor, wordplay, irony, sarcasm, understatement, or parody that are used in the text?